A person, company or party that the Forest Practices Board believes could be significantly and directly adversely affected by an analyst’s review, or by a proposed Board report. A significant effect could, for example, be economic or related to employment or reputation.
The allowable rate of timber harvest from a specified area of land. The Chief Forester sets AACs for timber supply areas (TSAs) and tree farm licences (TFLs) in accordance with Section 8 of the Forest Act.
Under the Forest and Range Practices Act, administrative penalties and certain plan approvals/rejections can be appealed to the Forest Appeals Commission. Commission decisions can, in certain circumstances, be appealed to British Columbia Supreme Court.
Forest Practices Board audits determine compliance with the provincial forestry legislation based on audit criteria derived from the Forest and Range Practices Act and related regulations. Audits by the Forest Practices Board are conducted in accordance with the auditing standards developed by the Board, which are consistent with generally accepted auditing standards.
Consists of: maintenance of the productivity of forest sites; restocking of denuded forest lands with commercial tree species within three years for areas west of the Coast Range and five years for areas in the Interior; and protection against damage by fire, insects and diseases to predetermined standards.
Harvesting methods and silviculture operations, including: seed collection, site preparation, artificial and natural regeneration, brushing, spacing and stand tending, and other operations for the purpose of establishing a free-growing crop of trees of a commercially valuable species. Basic silviculture may be a requirement of a regulation, a pre-harvest silviculture prescription or a silviculture prescription.
An independent organization within the BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, created to develop Crown timber for auction. BCTS was founded in 2003 with a mandate to provide the cost and price benchmarks for timber harvested from public land in British Columbia. Through 12 Business Areas and an operational presence in 33 locations, BCTS manages some 20 percent of the provincial Crown allowable annual cut.
The diversity of plants, animals, and other living organisms in all their forms and levels of organization, including genes, species, ecosystems, and the evolutionary and functional processes that link them.
Part of the biogeoclimatic ecosystem classification system. Recognized biogeoclimactic units are a synthesis of climate, vegetation and soil data and are defined as “classes of geographically related ecosystems that are distributed within a vegetationally inferred climatic space.”
Species of special concern (formerly called “vulnerable”) in British Columbia. These species are not immediately threatened, but are of concern because of characteristics that make them particularly sensitive to human activities or natural events.
A controlled burn, where the fire is intentionally ignited and allowed to proceed over a cutblock within well‐defined boundaries, for the purpose of reducing fuel hazard after logging, or for site preparation before planting.
The percentage of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of foliage of plants. Small openings within the canopy are included, and coverage may exceed 100 percent.
A Forest Practices Board conclusion arrived at when all forestry activities subject to audit are in compliance with legislation in all significant respects. The statement “in all significant respects” recognizes that there may be minor, or insignificant, instances of non-compliance.
An alteration within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity.
The drainage area above the most downstream point of diversion on a stream for which the water is for human consumption, and which is licensed under the Water Act for (i) a waterworks purpose, or (ii) a domestic purpose if the licence is held by, or is subject to, the control of a water users’ community as incorporated under the Water Act.
Forest Practices Board decisions based on investigation findings and the substance of the complaint (see section 185). Conclusions often relate to whether a complaint was confirmed (or substantiated). Essentially, a conclusion can be that issues in the complaint were:
– not substantiated;
– substantiated; or
– partially substantiated.
Measures taken to stabilize roads and logging trails during periods of inactivity, which include control of drainage, removal of sidecast where necessary, and re-establishment of vegetation in preparation for permanent deactivation.
A forest stand or forest type in which relatively small (10-20 years) age differences exist between individual trees. Even-aged stands are often the result of fire or a harvesting method, such as clearcutting or the shelterwood method.
Wetlands with organic soils and a water table near the surface. Soils are decomposed sedge and non-sphagnum moss peats. Waters are near neutral in pH and are nutrient rich. Vegetation is primarily sedges, grasses and reeds, but some shrubs and scattered trees may occur.
A deduction of fact made by the Forest Practices Board based on information obtained during an investigation. If no inference is required (because, for example, no one disputes a matter), the matter is a simple fact, not a finding.
An operational plan that provides the public and government agencies with details about the location of proposed roads and cutblocks for harvesting timber over a period of at least five years. The plan specifies measures that will be carried out to protect certain forest resources prescribed by regulation, and must be consistent with higher level plans, such as Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMPs). Upon introduction of the FRPA, Forest Stewardship Plans became the required planning document.
A forest licence allows orderly timber harvest over a portion of a sustained yield management unit, and the timely reforestation of harvested areas according to a strategic resource management plan for each timber supply area. The licence has a term of 15 to 20 years, generally replaceable every five years (some are non-replaceable) and operating areas that shift over time. A forest licence specifies an annual allowable cut, requires a management and working plan, and specified management activities.
An independent watchdog for sound practices in British Columbia. The Board reports to the government and public about compliance with the Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA) and the achievement of its intent.
Resources and values associated with forests and range including, without limitation, soil, visual quality, timber, water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, botanical forest products, forage, and biological diversity.
A key planning element in the Forest and Range Practices Act framework and the only plan subject to public review and comment and government approval. In FSPs licensees are required to identify results and/or strategies consistent with government objectives for values such as water, wildlife and soils. These results and strategies must be measurable and once approved are subject to government enforcement. FSPs identify areas within which road construction and harvesting will occur but are not required to show the specific locations of future roads and cutblocks. FSPs can have a term of up to five years.
An established seedling of an acceptable commercial species that is free from growth-inhibiting brush, weed, and excessive tree competition; or young trees that are as high as or higher than competing brush, with one metre of free-growing space around their tops.
The planned manipulation and/or reduction of living or dead forest fuels for forest management and other land use objectives (such as hazard reduction, silvicultural purposes, wildlife habitat improvement) by prescribed fire, mechanical, chemical or biological means and/or changing stand structure and species composition.
A document listing the stands to be harvested per year or period, usually showing types and intensities of harvests for each stand, as well as a timetable for regenerating currently non-productive areas.
Individuals and agencies, but not participants, who/which may be affected by either an investigation or potential conclusion or recommendation. For example, other levels of government (including municipal, federal and First Nations), interest representatives (e.g., Labour organizations, environmental groups, local non-government organizations) or individuals.
A detailed examination, usually involving a site visit plus interviews and file searches, with all involved licensees, district and/or regional offices of government agencies, the complainant and others.
A review of a decision by a court, authorized and conducted under the Judicial Review Procedure Act, primarily concerned with the fairness of the procedures used to make a decision, whether or not the decision maker was acting within his or her jurisdiction, and errors of law.
The Forest Practices Board’s authority to investigate. To be within the Board’s jurisdiction, the matter complained of must have happened after June 15, 1995, and concern a party’s compliance with the requirements of Parts 2 to 5 of the Forest and Range Practices Act and the regulations, the appropriateness of government enforcement under Part 6, compliance with Parts 2 and 3 of the Wildfire Act, and the appropriateness of government enforcement under Part 3.
A strategic, multi-agency, integrated resource plan at the sub-regional level. It is based on the principles of enhanced public involvement, consideration of all resource values, consensus-based decision making, and resource sustainability.
Where management asserts its authority to ensure those elements of an organization (including its resources, systems, processes, culture, structures and tasks) support people in the achievement of the organization’s objectives.
The outer portion of a riparian management area situated adjacent to a stream, lake, or wetland and established to conserve and maintain the productivity of aquatic and riparian ecosystems when harvesting is permitted.
An agreement between ministers defining the roles and responsibilities of each ministry in relation to the other or others, with respect to matters over which the ministers have concurrent jurisdiction.
When the auditor, upon reaching a non-compliance conclusion, determines that a non- compliance event, or the accumulation and consequences of a number of non-compliance events, is not significant and is not considered worth reporting.
Grassland, shrubland, and forested communities that normally experience frequent low-intensity fires. On grasslands, these fires limit encroachment by most woody trees and shrubs. Late seral and climax grasslands and shrublands are typically restricted to droughty sites that occur at low elevations or on steep south-facing slopes or fire-prone areas.
A forest that contains live and dead trees of various sizes, species, composition, and age class structure. Old-growth forests, as part of a slowly changing but dynamic ecosystem, include climax forests but not sub-climax or mid-seral forests. The age and structure of old growth varies significantly by forest type and from one biogeoclimatic zone to another.
An opportunity for a holder of a licence to review evidence and present its position to a statutory decision-maker with respect to a supposed contravention, before a decision on the contravention is made.
A general term referring to silvicultural systems other than clearcutting, in which only selected trees are harvested. Partial cutting systems include seed tree, shelterwood, selection, and clearcutting with reserves.
The government or the agreement holder(s). This may also include ministries or agreement holders not named as subjects of a complaint, but added as parties because the Board believes they may be affected by, or involved in, an investigation.
General statements of principles that guide government administration in the management of public affairs. They normally do not have the force of law. Policies include statements on how a government authority is to achieve its goals and objectives with regard to a specific subject area or class of subject areas, e.g., a policy for the process and recording of determinations.
The ability of a stream, river, wetland, or lake, and its riparian area, to withstand: normal peak flood events without experiencing accelerated soil loss; channel movement or bank movement; filter runoff; and store and safely release water.
A framework for a program that ensures efficient and effective processes are utilized to ensure that the program is in compliance with statutory requirements. These processes could include inspections, monitoring and audits.
A decision made by a government official or tribunal which involves the application of law to a particular set of facts requiring the exercise of discretion and the application of the principles of natural justice.
An operational plan under the Forest and Range Practices Act that may be prepared in place of a range use plan by those who have demonstrated a level of competence in range management. This plan is less prescriptive, provides options for more flexibility for experienced operators, and encourages innovation.
(see section 182) The Board must, prior to publishing a report or recommendation, consider whether or not it may adversely affect a party or person. The Board must give any affected party or person the opportunity to review, rebut or clarify the information before the Board publishes its report.
An area of forestland that, by law or policy, is not available for harvesting. Areas of land and water set aside for ecosystem protection, outdoor and tourism values, preservation of rare species, gene pool, wildlife protection, etc.
A portion of the riparian management area established to conserve the fish, wildlife habitat, biodiversity and the water values of the riparian management zone, and to protect the riparian reserve zone, if any, within the riparian management area.
The estimation of the likelihood of loss or damage, and the magnitude of the consequence should the loss or damage occur. In forestry, risk assessment includes the process of identifying the degree of risk that timber harvesting and road building imposes on adjacent and downslope social, economic, and forest resource values. The severity of each potential hazard and the magnitude of the potential consequences that correspond to each hazard provide the overall risk associated with harvesting a site.
The “art” of weighing the assessed risks (i.e., the likelihood of a potential loss to an environmental, social or economic value) against the expected benefits that may be gained from that action or decision.
Consists of measures to stabilize roads and logging trails during periods of commercial harvesting inactivity. It includes controlling drainage, removing side-cast where necessary and re-establishing vegetation for permanent deactivation.
A wetland with intermittently or permanently flooded areas where water depth does not exceed two metres. These open waters, commonly called ponds, have little or no emergent vegetation. Soils may be organic or mineral.
Where the auditor, after reaching a non-compliance conclusion, assesses that significant harm has occurred or is beginning to occur to persons or the environment as a result of the non-compliance event or condition. A significant breach can also result from the cumulative effect of a number of non-compliance events or conditions. Should a possible significant breach be identified, the auditor must conduct tests to determine its extent. If it is clear from the tests that a significant breach has occurred, the auditor must then immediately advise the Board, the person being audited, and the three ministers.
The art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands. Silviculture entails the manipulation of forest and woodland vegetation in stands and on landscapes to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis.
A site-specific operational plan that describes the forest management objectives for an area to be harvested. Silviculture prescriptions are required to describe the management activities proposed to maintain the inherent productivity of the site, accommodate all resource values including biological diversity, and produce a free growing stand capable of meeting stated management objectives. Silviculture prescriptions must be consistent with higher level plans that encompass the area to which the prescription applies.
A site‐specific plan that is required in place of a silviculture prescription as of December 17, 2002, except where there is already an existing silviculture prescription. The site plan contains some of the same elements as a silviculture prescription and is designed to identify resource values and define what a free‐growing stand will be on that site. However, it is not an operational plan under the Forest and Range Practices Act (FRPA) and does not require review or approval by government to be implemented.
Small Business Forest Enterprise Program (SBFEP) – Now Replaced By BC Timber Sales Program (BCTS)
A Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations program that enables registered individuals or companies to acquire rights to harvest Crown timber under a timber sale licence. The Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Opereations holds responsibility for most forestry planning and management requirements.
Disturbance to the soil in the net area to be reforested resulting from the construction of temporary access structures or gouges, ruts, scalps or compacted areas resulting from forestry activities. Without rehabilitation, disturbed sites often have reduced soil productivity and may not provide optimum growing conditions for new trees. For that reason, maximum allowable amounts of soil disturbance are set in regulation.
The range of healthy, well-spaced, acceptable trees required to establish a free-growing stand or to meet the residual stand requirements following an intermediate cutting or the harvesting of special forest products.
A watercourse formed when water flows either continuously or intermittently between continuous definable channel boundaries. The stream banks may be discontinuous on smaller streams, but the channel is detectable throughout the extent of the reach.
A party asserted to have failed to comply with the Forest and Range Practices Act, (FRPA) such as a government official or tenure holder. (Note that not all government agencies can be subjects, only those with authority in Parts 2-5 of FRPA).
A unit of the Biogeoclimatic Ecological Classification with less climatic variability and a narrower geographic distribution than the zone. Subzones are distinguished by a unique composition of plant species. They are climatically based and represent precipitation and temperature regimes.
A state or process that can be maintained indefinitely. The principles of sustainability integrate three closely interlined elements-the environment, the economy and the social system-into a system that can be maintained in a healthy state indefinitely.
An area based tenure agreement that issues the rights to harvest an allowable annual cut in a specified area. These licences commit the licensee to manage the entire area under the general supervision of the Forest Service. Cutting from all lands requires Forest Service approval through the issuance of cutting permits. A TFL has a term of 25 years.
A resource management objective established by the district manager or contained in a higher level plan that reflects the desired level of visual quality based on the physical characteristics and social concern for the area.
An accumulation of slash, branchwood and debris on a harvested cutblock created to clear the ground for regeneration. Also refers to an accumulation of fill or surfacing material left on the road shoulder as a result of grading operations.
An area based agreement similar to a Tree Farm Licence, but on a smaller scale, and allows for small-scale forestry to be practiced in a described area (Crown and private) on a sustained or perpetual yield basis.
Many British Columbia plant and animal species require old forest habitat for some part of their life cycle. For example, many amphibians and mammals, and more than 90 bird species depend on snags for nesting, denning, or food.